An engine, likewise referred to as a motor, is a tool which changes energy into useful mechanical motion. Motors which convert heat energy into motion are known as engines. Engines come in several kinds such as external and internal combustion. An internal combustion engine normally burns a fuel using air and the resulting hot gases are utilized for creating power. Steam engines are an illustration of external combustion engines. They make use of heat so as to produce motion utilizing a separate working fluid.
The electric motor takes electrical energy and generates mechanical motion through various electromagnetic fields. This is a typical kind of motor. Various kinds of motors function by non-combustive chemical reactions, other kinds can utilize springs and be driven through elastic energy. Pneumatic motors function by compressed air. There are various designs depending upon the application required.
ICEs or Internal combustion engines
An ICE happens whenever the combustion of fuel combines along with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine, the increase of high pressure gases mixed together with high temperatures results in making use of direct force to some engine parts, for instance, nozzles, pistons or turbine blades. This particular force produces functional mechanical energy by way of moving the part over a distance. Normally, an ICE has intermittent combustion as seen in the popular 2- and 4-stroke piston engines and the Wankel rotary engine. The majority of jet engines, gas turbines and rocket engines fall into a second class of internal combustion engines referred to as continuous combustion, that happens on the same previous principal described.
Stirling external combustion engines or steam engines greatly differ from internal combustion engines. The external combustion engine, wherein energy is to be delivered to a working fluid like hot water, liquid sodium, pressurized water or air that is heated in a boiler of some type. The working fluid is not combined with, comprising or contaminated by burning products.
A variety of designs of ICEs have been created and are now available with several weaknesses and strengths. If powered by an energy dense gas, the internal combustion engine delivers an effective power-to-weight ratio. Though ICEs have succeeded in various stationary utilization, their actual strength lies in mobile utilization. Internal combustion engines dominate the power supply used for vehicles such as cars, boats and aircrafts. A few hand-held power tools make use of either battery power or ICE equipments.
External combustion engines
An external combustion engine utilizes a heat engine where a working fluid, like for example steam in steam engine or gas in a Stirling engine, is heated by combustion of an external source. This particular combustion occurs through a heat exchanger or via the engine wall. The fluid expands and acts upon the engine mechanism that generates motion. Next, the fluid is cooled, and either compressed and reused or discarded, and cool fluid is pulled in.
Burning fuel with the aid of an oxidizer so as to supply the heat is known as "combustion." External thermal engines may be of similar operation and configuration but utilize a heat supply from sources such as nuclear, exothermic, geothermal or solar reactions not involving combustion.
The working fluid could be of any constitution. Gas is the most common kind of working fluid, yet single-phase liquid is sometimes used. In Organic Rankine Cycle or in the case of the steam engine, the working fluid adjusts phases between liquid and gas.
Click to Download the pdf